GERD that is refractory to medical therapy is rare. The diagnosis should be carefully confirmed, preferably with ambulatory pH testing, prior to antireflux surgery. Level of Evidence: IV The vast majority of patients will have their symptoms and mucosal disease controlled with medical therapy for GERD 71 ; . When a patient presents with either typical or atypical symptoms of GERD refractory to therapy, the diagnosis should be reconsidered. This may involve an ambulatory pH study, either on or off therapy, additional endoscopic and manometric evaluations, and consideration of testing and therapeutic trials for other conditions that may produce symptoms similar to GERD. It is also clear that some patients do not respond to traditional, approved doses of PPIs and that increasing the dose and particularly dosing the medication twice daily is appropriate in those patients 78 ; . Refractory GERD is often used as a rationale for antireflux surgery and even for the development of some of the endoscopic techniques. The available data suggest that patients who do the best with surgery are those who previously responded to medical therapy, not the refractory patient 114 ; . The endoscopic techniques have not been adequately studied in patients who are refractory to medications.|
Tumors was found in either of these Wistar rat studies. In two feeding studies of hamsters, with and without glucose supplementation, there was also no evidence of carcinogenicity. Acatbose did not induce any DNA damage in vitro in the CHO chromosomal aberration assay, bacterial mutagenesis Ames ; assay, or a DNA binding assay. In vivo, no DNA damage was detected in the dominant lethal test in male mice, or the mouse micronucleus test. Fertility studies conducted in rats after oral administration produced no untoward effect on fertility or on the overall capability to reproduce. Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B. The safety of PRECOSE in pregnant women has not been established. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at doses up to 480 mg kg corresponding to 9 times the exposure in humans, based on drug blood levels ; and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to acarbose. In rabbits, reduced maternal body weight gain, probably the result of the pharmacodynamic activity of high doses of acarbose in the intestines, may have been responsible for a slight increase in the number of embryonic losses. However, rabbits given 160 mg kg acarbose corresponding to 10 times the dose in man, based on body surface area ; showed no evidence of embryotoxicity and there was no evidence of teratogenicity at a dose 32 times the dose in man based on body surface area ; . There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies of PRECOSE in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of the human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Because current information strongly suggests that abnormal blood glucose levels during pregnancy are associated with a higher incidence of congenital anomalies as well as increased neonatal morbidity and mortality, most experts recommend that insulin be used during pregnancy to maintain blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible. Nursing Mothers: A small amount of radioactivity has been found in the milk of lactating rats after administration of radiolabeled acarbose. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, PRECOSE should not be administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness of PRECOSE in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use: Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of PRECOSE in the United States, 27 percent were 65 and over, while 4 percent were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety and effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. The mean steady-state area under the curve AUC ; and maximum concentrations of acarbose were approximately 1.5 times higher in elderly compared to young volunteers; however, these differences were not statistically significant. ADVERSE REACTIONS Digestive Tract: Gastrointestinal symptoms are the most common reactions to PRECOSE. In U.S. placebo-controlled trials, the incidences of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and flatulence were 19%, 31%, and 74% respectively in 1255 patients treated with PRECOSE 50-300 mg t.i.d., whereas the corresponding incidences were 9%, 12%, and 29% in 999 placebo-treated patients. In a one-year safety study, during which patients kept diaries of gastrointestinal symptoms, abdominal pain and diarrhea tended to return to pretreatment levels over time, and the frequency - 10.
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Ginseng. There are many types of ginseng Panax ginseng ; --Siberian, Korean, American, White, and Red. All are promoted as "adaptogens, " which help one cope with stress and supposedly boost immunity. Ginseng also is reputed to be an aphrodisiac, a claim that is unsubstantiated by medical evidence. It also is promoted as a means of improving athletic performance and inducing weight loss without the need for diet or exercise. There is evidence that ginseng does not improve athletic performance, despite claims made 23 ; . Reports of antioxidant effects and reduced rates of disease, particularly cancer rates, are suspect because the products in general use have been found to contain little or no active ingredients 24.
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August 30-31, 2007, MADRID, SPAIN, "International Workshop on Embryo Biopsy and Blastomere Fixation: Hands on Course." Information: Center for Embryo Medicine, Dr Esther Velilla Garcia, Email: pgd pgdcem , pgdcem . * October 31, 2007 - November 03, 2007, ANTALYA, TURKEY, "Middle East Fertility Society, 14th Annual Meeting, MEFS2007." Information: MEFS 2007 Congress Secretariat, P.O.Box 167220 Achrafieh, Beirut-Lebanon, Tel Fax: 961-1-610400 612400, Email: registration mefs , : mefs registration . June 2-5, 2007, TORONTO, ONTARIO, CANADA, "The Endocrine Society's 89th Annual Meeting ENDO ; ." Information: The Endocrine Society, 8401 Connecticut Ave., Suite 900, Chevy Chase, MD 20815-5817, Phone 888 ; 363-6274, Fax 301 ; 941-0259, Email: societyservices endo-society . June 8-9. 2007, DRAKE HOTEL, CHICAGO, IL, USA, "Midwest Reproductive Symposium 2007." Information: : cvent , click on RSVP for Event and enter Event Code: 4YN78BST2M3. June 20-22, 2007, VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA, "Workshop on Reproductive Medicine and the Law." Information: aals events calendar . June 21-26, 2007, OTTAWA, ONTARIO, CANADA, "Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada SOGC ; 2007." Information: sogc.medical index . July 1-4, 2007, LYON, FRANCE, "23rd Annual Meeting of the ESHRE." Information: ESHRE Central Office, Van Akenstraat 41, B-1850 Grimbergen, Belgium, Phone + 32 2 269 Fax + 32 2 269 00, eshre . July 19-21, 2007, SAN ANTONIO, TX, USA, "XVIth Ovarian Workshop, Ovarian Differentiation, Development, Function, and Persistence." Information: : biosymposia . July 21-25, 2007, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS, USA, "40th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction." Information: Gwen Abramson, SSR, 1619 Monroe St., Madison WI, 53711, USA, Tel: 608-256-2777, Fax: 608-256-4610, E-mail: ssram ssr , Web: : ssr . August 30 - September 2, 2007, BERLIN, GERMANY, "5th European Congress of Reproductive Immunology." Information: Aurlie Page, Conventus Congressmanagement & Marketing GmbH, Markt 8, D-07743 Jena, Phone 03641 - 35 33 25, Fax 03641 - 35 33 271, E-mail: aurelie.page conventus , conventus . September 3-7, 2007, JENA, GERMANY, "3rd Embryo Implantation Control Summer School." Information: Drte Bttcher, Project Assistant to Udo R. Markert, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Conventus Congressmanagement & Marketing GmbH, Markt 8, 07743 Jena, Germany, Email: doerte.boettcher conventus . September 6-8, 2007, SALVADOR DE BAHIA, BRAZIL, "Quality Management in Assisted Reproduction." Information: Email: info seronosymposia . September 8-12, 2007, HOBART, TASMANIA, AUSTRALIA, "Fertility Society of Australia - Annual Conference 2007." Information: Kim O'Dea, Phone: 03 9645 6311, Email: kimo wsm .au. September 9, 2007, HOBART, TASMANIA, AUSTRALIA, "Progress of Fertility Preservation in Malignant Disease." Information: Email: oceania seronosymposia . September 15-19, 2007, MONTREAL, CANADA, "14th World Congress on In Vitro Fertilization and 3rd World Congress on In Vitro Maturation." Information: ISIVF Congress Secretariat, 687 Pine Avenue West, Rm. F4.23, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1A1 Canada, Phone: 514 ; 843-1729, Fax: 514 ; 843-1678, Email: info isivf , isivf . September 19-21, 2007, BARCELONA, SPAIN, "2nd International Congress IVI." Information: Noemi de Villasante, Joan Guell, 144, 08028, Tel: + 34.93.363.39.51 Fax: + 34.93.439.35.94, E-mail: ivicongress tecnicviajes Web: : congresoivi barcelona . October 13-17, 2007, WASHINGTON, D.C., USA, "63rd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine." Information: American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 1209 Montgomery Highway, Birmingham, Alabama 35216-2809, Phone 205 ; 978-5000, Fax 205 ; 978-5018, E-mail: asrm asrm , asrm . October 29-31, 2007, MADRID, SPAIN, "IVF Preceptorship." Information: Email: info seronosymposia.
INDEX 8-MOP, 31 a b otic, 33 aa 3% electrolyte-tpn soln gly, 46 aa 4.25% electrolyte-tpn d25w, 47 abacavir sulfate, 8, 9 abacavir sulfate lamivudine, 8 abacavir lamivudine zidovudine, 9 abarelix, 17 abatacept maltose, 17 ABELCET [INJ], 12 ABILIFY, DISCMELT, 19 ABORTIFACIENTS, 49 ABRAXANE [INJ], 15 acarbose, 36 ACCUSURE SYRINGE [OTC], 42 ACCUZYME, 32 acebutolol hcl, 26 acetaminophen w codeine, 21 acetaminophen phenyltolx cit, 18 acetasol hc, 33 acetazolamide, 52, 53 acetic acid, 33, 57 acetic acid, -hydrocortisone, 33 acetic acid aluminum, 33 acidic vaginal, 51 acitretin, 30 ACTHAR H.P. [INJ], 36 ACTHIB [INJ], 39 acticin, 31 ACTIMMUNE [INJ], 41 ACTIQ [G], 20 ACTIVASE [INJ], 29 ACTIVELLA, 51 ACTONEL, WITH CALCIUM, 36 ACULAR, LS, PF [CARE], 54 acyclovir, 11 acyclovir sodium [INJ], 11 adalimumab, 16 ADDERALL XR * [CARE], 21 adefovir dipivoxil, 11 2007 Express Scripts, Inc. 04 01 2007 and precose.
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The ASRC-CEM Wilderness Emergency Medical Services Institute, previously named the Wilder ness Emer gency Medi cine Cu ricu lum Development Project, is devoted to developing curriculu for wilderness EMS providers and medical control physicians, and fosters wilderness EMS research. It is a cooperative venture of the Appalachian Search and Rescue Conference and the Center for Emergency Medicine of Western Pennsylvania. The ASRC is a large, tightly-knit wilderness search and rescue organization with eight teams throughout the mid-Appalachian states. The Center for Emergency Medicine is an emergency medicine and prehospital care research and teaching organization. It provides a medical helicopter service, an emergency medicine residency, Emergency Medical Services for the city of Pittsburgh, and conducts a variety of related projects.
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Habits over the prior 12 months, subjects were classified as `normally active' no regular endurance activity ; . These subjects participated in 2 h aerobic exercise per week. Subjects were taking no medication other than oral contraceptives. Female subjects had a negative pregnancy test on both the screening and study days.
Adequate vaccine against malaria, including the difficulty and expense of human trials.12 As a consequence, it is believed that the development of a malaria vaccine will take a relatively long time, despite the various advances made in the area in the last years. Extensive reviews on the difficulties in developing a malaria vaccine and how they have been faced may be found in literature.11-13 While an efficient vaccine is not available, other strategies should be employed against malaria. The main strategies for controlling malaria are educational programs, chemotherapy, and vector control. This last strategy is conducted by the use of insecticides on the walls of the houses to control the vector in the dwellings, the use of insecticides to control the mosquito populations at the breeding sites and, more recently, by the use of insecticideimpregnated bed nets, especially to protect sleeping children.11 Chemotherapy will be the focus of this review. 2.2 Chemotherapy for falciparum malaria Several drugs have been used in the treatment of malaria since the 17th century. These drugs act on different stages of the malaria life cycle, although most of them target the intraerythrocytic phases of the parasite.14 It should be noted that an antimalarial could be effective against one Plasmodium species and completely ineffective against the others, thus making the use of combinations of drugs an advisable strategy for malaria chemotherapy. According to the classification proposed by Olliaro, 14 antimalarial drugs can be divided in two groups: the nucleic acid inhibitors which we rename as nucleic acid biosynthesis inhibitors, which we believe is a more precise name ; and the blood schizonticides. The nucleic acid biosynthesis inhibitors are atovaquone and the compounds known as antifolates; while the blood schizonticides can be further divided in quinoline-type and artemisinin-type compounds. Antifolates act on enzymes of the so-called folate cycle and, since they are the main interest of this review, they will be discussed in more detail later. Atovaquone is used for both the treatment and the prevention of malaria, in combination with proguanil a prodrug metabolically converted to cycloguanyl, an antifolate ; .6, 14 Although the mechanism of atovaquone action and of its synergy with proguanil are not completely understood yet, it is known that it acts primarily on the mitochondrial functions of the parasite.14 When atovaquone is employed alone, the parasite rapidly develops drug resistance, making its use in combination with proguanil necessary. Despite its high efficiency, the production of this combination commercially known as Malarone ; in industrial and acetylsalicylic.
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Interest that in liver tissue the cytosolic but not the vacuolar glycogen is decreased by starvation 25 ; . Preservation of vacuolar glycogen after fasting conforms with our previous observation that enzyme replacement in starved mice is able to markedly increase glucose-stimulated insulin response 4 ; . Further, a specific involvement of the vacuolar system is also suggested by our recent data showing that acarbose inhibited glucose-induced insulin releaseand islet acid glucan-1, 4-a-glucosidase in a time- and dose-dependent way without even affecting the neutral a-glucosidase endoplasmic reticulum ; 23 ; . Moreover, islet glucose oxidation was unaffected by both acarbose and emiglitate 23 ; . Unfortunately, to date there seemsto be no methodological approach to specifically detect changesin islet vacuolar glycogen concentration. However, theoretically, a lysosomal labilization process followed by glucan-1, 4-ol-glucosidase-inducedvacuolar glycogenolysis and production of free glucose, may serve as one of several transduction systems for insulin release. As discussed above, such a signal system may be a common feature for different nutrient secretagogues becauseour data reveal that insulin release stimulated not only by glucosebut, asshown here for the first time, also by nonglucose nutrients such as leucine and KIC are inhibited by selective inhibition of islet acid glucan-1, 4-a-glucosidaseactivity. This inhibition of insulin secretion could be shown also in our in vivo experiments. In contrast, insulin release stimulated by CCK-8 was unaffected by emiglitate both in vitro and in vivo. Similarly, as shown in the present enzyme replacement experiments, pretreatment of mice with purified fungal acid glucan-1, 4-cw-glucosidase markedly enhanced the insulin secretory response to KIC but did not at all influence the responseto CCK-8. The large increasein KIC-induced insulin release in enzyme-pretreated animals was reflected by a great depression of the plasma glucoselevels, indicating that the immunoreactive insulin was indeed biologically active. This is in accordance with recent observations 22, 26 ; showing that enzyme pretreatment enhanced the insulin secretory response to an iv glucose load, whereas the response to cholinergic stimulation was unaffected. In this context, it should be recalled that mouse islets in vivo are able to take up and store iv administered fungal acid glucan-1, 4-ol-glucosidase 4, 6 ; . All these in vitro and in vivo data strongly suggest that islet acid glucan-1, 4-cY-glucosidase directly is involved in the physiological mechanismsof fuel-stimulated insulin releasebut not in receptor-mediated secretory mechanismsinduced by hormones and neurotransmitters. This is also in accordance with previous findings showing that secretagoguesdirectly activating the CAMP-protein kinase A system e.g. glucagon and the phosphodisterase inhibitor IBMX ; or the phospholipase C system e.g. carbachol or the protein kinase C activator TPA ; seemto operate independent of the acid glucan-1, 4-a-glucosidaseactivity 3, 12, ; . These observations do not rule out the fact that nutrientinduced insulin releasein different situations are influenced by both the CAMP and the phospholipase C system 27-30 ; . Thus increased glucose concentrations, both in vitro and in vivo, are known to increase insulin secretion induced by the phospholipase C activators acetylcholine and CCK aswell as activators of the CAMP system such as IBMX, glucagon and!
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Metabolic control, C-peptide secretion, hepatic glucose output, and peripheral insulin sensitivity in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 12: 537 543, Rossetti L, Giaccari A, De Fronzo RA: Glucose toxicity. Diabetes Care 13: 610630, 1990 Tessier D, Dawson K, Tetrault JP Bravo G Meneilly GS: Glibenclamide vs. gliclazide in type 2 diabetes of the elderly. Diabet Med 11: 974980, 1994 Qualmann CH, Nauck MA, Holst JJ, rskov C, Creutzfeldt W: Glucagon-like peptide 1 GLP-1 ; in response to the luminal sucrose from the upper and lower gut: a study using alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarboze ; . Scand J Gastroenterol 30: 892 896, Nauck MA, Holst JJ, Willms B, Schmiegel W: Glucagon-like peptide 1 GLP-1 ; as a new therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 105: 187195, 1997.
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Although pregnancy is generally considered to be a safe time during which hormonal changes protect women from psychiatric disorders, this is a myth, say researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital, the University of California, Los Angeles, and Emory University. In a study of 201 pregnant women, 65 stopped antidepressant treatment around the time of conception; of those, 44 68% ; experienced relapses of depression during pregnancy. By contrast, 26% of 82 women experienced relapses while maintaining their antidepressant regimen. Approximately 50% of the women who stopped taking their medications had relapses in the first trimester, and 90% had relapses by the end of the second trimester. The researchers suggest that reintroducing antidepressant therapy in the second trimester might be able to prevent the critical period of organogenesis. They warn that although this course attenuates the risk of depressive relapse, for instance, aacrbose tablets!
The theory of recapitulation was destroyed in 1921 by Professor Walter Garstang in a famous paper. Since then no respectable biologist has ever used the theory of recapitulation, because it was utterly unsound, created by a Nazi-like preacher named Haeckel."-- * Ashley Mantagu, debate held April 12, 1980, at Princeton University, quoted in L.D. Sunderland, Darwin's Enigma, p. 119 and alpha-lipoic!
Although not solely based on young people, considerable interest has been attached to the evaluation of a programme that was primarily aimed at improving GP-based care of mental illness. The quasiexperimental study on the island of Gotland Sweden ; reported that the rate of suicide was reduced after the introduction of training programmes for GPs in the recognition and management of depression Rihmer et al. 1995; Rutz et al. 1989 ; . The reduction in suicide rates was accompanied by an improvement in other indicators of quality of care such as decreased hospital admissions and improved prescribing ; and a saving in drug and hospital care costs.
Drug nAMe Antidiabetic Agents -- continued AVANDIA rosiglitazone ; BYETTA exenatide ; chlorpropamide glipizide glipizide ER glyburide glyburide micronize metformin hcl PRANDIN repaglinide ; PRECOSE acarbose ; SYMLIN pramlintide ; tolazamide tolbutamide Diabetic Supplies alcohol antiseptic pads gauze bandage insulin disposable needles insulin syringe NOVOPEN 3 Glycemic Agents dextrose GLUCAGON glucagon, human recomb. ; GLUCAGON EMERGENCY KIT glucagon, human recomb. ; PROGLYCEM diazoxide ; Insulins HUMALOG MIX 50 insulin ; HUMALOG MIX 75 25 insulin ; HUMULIN L insulin lente ; HUMULIN U insulin ultralente ; LANTUS insulin glargine ; NOVOLIN N insulin NPH ; NOVOLIN R insulin regular ; NOVOLIN 70 30 insulin 70 30 ; NOVOLOG insulin aspart ; NOVOLOG MIX 70 30 insulin aspart protamine insulin aspart and amantadine.
This drug should not be taken if: you have had an allergic reaction to it previously you have glaucoma you are experiencing a period of severe anxiety, nervous tension or depression conditions requiring dosing adjustments liver function: used with caution and in decreased dose in patients with liver compromise.
2 INTRODUCTION The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance IGT ; increases with age 6 ; . More than 25% of the older population meets current diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes 15, 24 ; . An additional 20% of this population meets criteria for IGT, defined as a 2-hour glucose level 7.8 mM but 11.1 mM by oral glucose tolerance testing OGTT ; , and a fasting glucose 7.0 mM 15 ; . Isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia IPH ; , defined as a 2-hour glucose level 11.1 mM by OGTT, but a fasting glucose level 7.0 mM, is particularly common in people over age 60 1, 10, ; . IGT, as with type 2 diabetes, is characterized by both insulin resistance 13, 20 ; and defects in -cell function 13, 20, 30 ; . Multiple risk factors for type 2 diabetes associated with aging may predispose older people to develop glucose intolerance and increased insulin resistance. Insulin secretory defects have been consistently demonstrated even with normal aging, with greater defects in older people with IGT 2, 6, 8 ; . Over time chronic exposure to hyperglycemia in older people with IGT may cause a further decline in -cell function. Studies in animal models and humans suggest that chronic hyperglycemia may have adverse effects on insulin secretion, an effect called glucose toxicity 25 ; . -glucosidase inhibitors, such as acarbose, act by inhibiting enzymes in the small intestine, thereby decreasing glucose absorption and improving postprandial hyperglycemia. In the STOPNIDDM diabetes prevention trial, acarbose treatment decreased the progression to diabetes in people with IGT by 25% compared to placebo 9 ; . Acarbos3 has also been found to normalize postprandial hyperglycemia and to improve insulin sensitivity in a study of 8 obese middle-aged people with IGT 10 ; . It was thought that insulin sensitivity might have improved at least in part and amiloride and acarbose.
Required data elements Health plans and POs may create and use internal databases for P4P reporting, such as case management, utilization management, registries or databases populated with medical record information. The database must include all data elements specified in the measure e.g., date of service, procedure, prescription, practitioner type ; , and services must be identified as having been rendered within the time frame specified in the measure.
70. Peraldi P, Xu M, Spiegelman BM. Thiazolidinediones block tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inhibition of insulin signaling. J Clin Invest. 1997; 100: 1863-1869. Ovalle F, Bell DS. Clinical evidence of thiazolidinedione-induced improvement of pancreatic beta-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002; 4: 56-59. The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Prevention of type 2 diabetes with troglitazone in the diabetes prevention program [abstract]. Diabetes. 2003; 52 suppl 1 ; : A58-A59. 73. Chiasson JL, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, et al. The STOP-NIDDM Trial: an international study on the efficacy of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor to prevent type 2 diabetes in a population with impaired glucose tolerance: rationale, design, and preliminary screening data. Study to Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1998; 21: 1720-1725. Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, et al. The effect of acarbose on insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care. 1996; 19: 1191-1194. Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, et al, for the STOP-NIDDM Trial Research Group. Acarvose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. Lancet. 2002; 359: 2072-2077. World Health Organization. The World Health Report 1997 --Conquering Suffering, Enriching Humanity. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1997. 77. Simpson RW, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ. The prevention of type 2 diabetes-lifestyle change or pharmacotherapy? A challenge for the 21st century. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003; 59: 165-180. Davidson MH, Hauptman J, DiGirolamo M, et al. Weight control and risk factor reduction in obese subjects treated for 2 years with orlistat: a randomized controlled trial [published correction appears in JAMA. 1999; 281: 1174]. JAMA. 1999; 281: 235-242. Sjstrm L, Rissanen A, Andersen T, et al. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of orlistat for weight loss and prevention of weight regain in obese patients. Lancet. 1998; 352: 167-173. Heymsfield SB, Segal KR, Hauptman J, et al. Effects of weight loss with orlistat on glucose tolerance and progression to type 2 diabetes in obese adults. Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160: 1321-1326. Torgerson JS, Hauptman J, Boldrin M, et al. XENical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects XENDOS ; study a randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients [published correction appears in Diabetes Care. 2004; 27: 856]. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27: 155-161. Long SD, O'Brien K, MacDonald KG Jr, et al. Weight loss in severely obese subjects prevents the progression of impaired glucose tolerance to type II diabetes. A longitudinal interventional study. Diabetes Care. 1994; 17: 372-375. Torgerson JS, Sjstrm L. The Swedish Obese Subjects SOS ; study--rationale and results. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001; 25 suppl 1 ; : S2-S4. 84. Buchwald H, Avidor Y, Braunwald E, et al. Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004; 292: 1724-1737. Yusuf DP, Gerstein H, Hoogwerf B, et al, for the HOPE Study Investigators. Ramipril and the development of diabetes. JAMA. 2001; 286: 1882-1885. Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Niskanen L, et al. Effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition compared with conventional therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension: the Captopril Prevention Project CAPPP ; randomised trial. Lancet. 1999; 353: 611-616. ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial ALLHAT ; . JAMA. 2002; 288: 2981-2997. Brown MJ, Palmer CR, Castaigne A, et al. Morbidity and mortality in patients randomised to double-blind treatment with a longacting calcium-channel blocker or diuretic in the International Nifedipine GITS study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment INSIGHT ; [published correction appears in Lancet. 2000; 356: 514]. Lancet. 2000; 356: 366-372. Pepine CJ, Handberg EM, Cooper-DeHoff RM, et al, for the INVEST Investigators. A calcium antagonist vs a non-calcium antagonist hypertension treatment strategy for patients with and amiodarone.
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Table 8. Insulin Receptors Sensitizers Generic Name Rosiglitazone Pioglitazone Trade Names Avandia Actors Tablet Strength mg ; 4.0 15; 30; Frequency of Administration once daily once daily Table 9. Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors Generic Name Acabrose Miglitol Trade Names Prelose Glyset Tablet Strength mg ; 25; 50; 100 Frequency of Administration 3 times day 3 times day.
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