Although most bar staff are aware of drugs like marijuana, cocaine and hallucinogens like ecstasy or LSD, rape drugs, sometimes improperly known as date rape drugs, are less known. This article is intended to increase your knowledge and awareness of these drugs, provide ideas for keeping them out of your bar, and when necessary, how to help someone who has been drugged. The two rape drugs of interest in this article are Rohypnl and GHB. In Canada, medical and police reports of sexual assault rarely involve Rohypnol. GHB is commonly confirmed as the drug used to facilitate sexual assault. That said and not intending to diminish the importance of understanding the role these drugs play in sexual crime, it is important to note that alcohol remains the most common substance a perpetrator relies on for the purpose of harming someone in this war. Sexual assault Simply stated this is how the drugs are used. A customer in the bar secretively slips a strong dose of the drug into the intended victim's drink. When the victim suddenly becomes very intoxicated and helpless, the perpetrator steps in to remove the victim from the bar. Taken to another location, away from the view of others, the victim is sexually assaulted. Tohypnol is the first known rape-assisted drug. Until recently, Rohypnol, a legal, minor tranquilizer in other countries but not Canada, dissolved quickly in liquid, making it easy to slip into drinks without arousing suspicion. Since 1997, the tablets have been manufactured to dissolve more slowly in liquid, turn clear beverages bright blue and turn darker beverages murky, these changes make it easier to detect the presence of the drug in a drink. Even when Rhypnol is taken without alcohol or other drugs, users can appear "drunk". The effects include loss of inhibitions and judgment, slurred speech, weakness and staggering, dizziness.|
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Question 1 follow if completing follow-up please cross check the patient's answers with the answers given for Q1 at baseline. Any differences on this question should be queried ; In your life, which of the following substances have you used? NONUSE ever used? NON-MEDICAL USE ONLY ; a. Tobacco products cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars, etc. ; b. Alcoholic beverages beer, wine, spirits, etc. ; c. Cannabis marijuana, pot, grass, hash, etc. ; d. Cocaine coke, crack, etc. ; e. Amphetamine type stimulants speed, diet pills, ecstasy, etc. ; f. Inhalants nitrous, glue, petrol, paint thinner, etc. ; g. Sedatives or Sleeping Pills Valium, Serepax, Rohypnol, etc. ; h. Hallucinogens LSD, acid, mushrooms, PCP, Special K, etc. ; i. Opioids heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine, etc. ; j. Other - specify: No Yes.
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Analyses routinely performed for Criminal Investigations primarily sexual assault cases ; and DUI DWI cases include alcohols ethanol, methanol, acetone, and isopropanol ; and, if the blood alcohol concentration BAC ; is less than 0.1 g dL, drugs of abuse cocaine, morphine, codeine, and cannabinoids ; . A complete drug screen is available upon request if the use of a particular therapeutic drug is known or suspected, e.g., methadone, and the blood alcohol concentration is less than 0.1 g dL; the drug in question should be identified on the Toxicology Request Form, which also serves as the chain of custody document. Note that sexual assault cases in which the use of Rohypnol is suspected require a special benzodiazepine analysis. Rohypnol is not detectable in blood or urine following a single dose, but its inactive metabolite may be detected in blood for approximately 4 6 hours and in urine for approximately 10 12 hours after Rohypnol administration. Analysis for DRE cases is determined by the DEC drug category identified on the Toxicology Request Form this form also serves as the chain of custody document ; . The Drug Influence Evaluation sheet should be included with the request form. If the specific drug s ; used by the defendant is known, that information should be included on the Toxicology Request Form and a specific analysis for that drug will be performed. If no categories are listed an immunoassay for the following drugs or drug classes will be performed: cocaine metabolite, opiates, and cannabinoids. Requests for Special Tests e.g., ethylene glycol ; should be confirmed via telephone before submitting specimens to verify that the analysis can be performed and to determine the most appropriate specimen to be submitted.
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The type B allergic reaction primarily has mechanisms currently numbered at four, but growing with our understanding of the pathophysiology. Traditionally, we have used the Coombs and Gel system of immunological reactions to classify. These include the usual type I reaction, which is of greatest import because of its potential for anaphylaxis, and common presentation of local or widespread urticaria. The major significance of these reactions is the biological amplification, so that subsequent exposure to the given drug, even in trace amounts, can cause reactions ranging from urticaria to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The mechanisms here center around certain predisposing phenotypes, including the patients in the TH-2 paradigm. TH-2 paradigm patients are those with common skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, that have the TH-2 predilection toward overproduction of antibodies, especially those in the immunoglobulin Ig ; E category. Such patients are at greater risk for IgE-induced anaphylactic drug reactions. The reactions, including the bullous eruptions, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme major Stevens-Johnson syndrome ; , may be a function of the type II, or cytotoxic, reaction. Additionally, many cytopenic reactions occur in children, from this type of reaction, including thrombocytopenia and penic states related to other cells of the blood. The most common form of drug eruption is the type III, or immune complexrelated reaction, in regard to.
Defendant knew that members of the Class used AWP as a pricing mechanism and that the 5% WAC-to-AWP increase was a phony increase, i.e., it did not represent any true increase in cost prices, and as such would artificially increase pharmaceutical payments by class members. b. Defendants' conduct was unfair, unlawful and deceptive in that defendants and serevent.
1. Do you abuse any substances? If yes, give details 2. Have you ever abused Rohypol or other tablets that contain flunitrazepam FZ ; ? If yes, specify which of the substances FZ Rohypnol, Flunitrazepam NM Pharma, Flupam, Fluscand ; 3. Have you ever failed to carry out properly your normal tasks because you were intoxicated with FZ or suffering withdrawal symptoms? If yes, how often? 4. Have you ever driven while noticeably intoxicated with FZ? If yes, how many times has this happened? 5. Have you ever been apprehended by the police due to FZ? If yes, has this happened on several occasions? 6. Has your use of FZ caused problems between you and other people such as family and friends ; ? 7. Have you ever got into a fight after taking FZ? 8. When was the first time you used FZ? 9. How did you get hold if it? 10. How do you currently get hold of it? If by a legal manner: why is it prescribed for you? 11. 12. 13. How many tablets do you take a day? How many tablets do you normally take at a time? How do you take it? Have you ever taken it together with alcohol and or other drugs or medicines? If yes, which others? If yes, what were you trying to achieve by mixing FZ with other substances? 15. Were you intoxicated with FZ when committing the crime? 16. Were you intoxicated also with alcohol and or other drugs or medicines such as other benzodiazepines ; when committing the crime and or during the preceding day?.
Rohypnol order onlineCounterfeit tablets containing a benzodiazepine other than rohypnol were first encountered in florida in january 1997 and have since been seized in california, hawaii, and maryland and serzone!
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There is a widely held misconception about the effects of the drugs commonly associated with drug assisted rape. Despite the prototypical construction, the reality is that people who have ingested drugs such as Rhoypnol and GHB rarely lose consciousness. Rather, the amnesiac effects of the drugs prevent victims from recollecting events thus creating a `memory void' that the brain rationalises as a period of unconsciousness. However, the victim will retain consciousness whilst appearing to the observer to be inebriated but able to act under her own volition Dowd, Strong, Janicak and Negrusz, 2002 ; . By eliminating the possibility of consent, the prototypical construction focuses attention on the use of drugs to obtain intercourse from a victim who is presumed to be unconscious ; rather than on the use of drugs to obtain consent from a victim whose state of mind is affected by the drugs ; . It is this latter situation that is a more accurate representation of the majority of cases of drug assisted rape. Drugs such as Rohypnol and GHB lower anxiety, alertness and inhibition whilst inducing euphoria, passivity and a sense of relaxation thus increasing the likelihood that the victim will engage in intercourse, even if such behaviour would usually be uncharacteristic, leading them to be described as `a particularly formidable weapon' in sexual assault cases Weir, 2001, p. 80 ; . In addition to this impact on the victim's thinking and behaviour, these drugs induce anterograde amnesia thus leaving the victim with only a hazy recollection of events. The amnesiac impact of these drugs has been described as `their most insidious effects' and clearly has a negative impact on the ability to detect and prosecute perpetrators of drug assisted rape Labianca, 1998 ; . It would appear that Rohypnol and the like facilitate rape not because they render the victim unconscious but because they lead to a disassociation between mind and body that renders the victim receptive to sexual activity that she may well have found unwelcome in other circumstances whilst eroding her ability to recollect events once the drugs have worn off. Therefore, although Rohypnol and GHB have come to be synonymous with drug assisted rape, the basis for this is an erroneous understanding of their effects. Upon closer examination, it is clear that a false distinction is being made between these drugs and other intoxicants. As toxicologist Laura Slaughter has noted, `with moderate to heavy consumption, alcohol and marijuana have properties similar to both GHB and Rohypnol'; properties which she identifies as `intoxication, disinhibition and amnesia' Slaughter, 2000 ; . Viewed in terms of the effects of the intoxicants upon the victim, it is clear that drug assisted rape should not be characterised by reference to particular drugs. It is not the nature of the intoxicant that encapsulates the `wrongness' of drug assisted rape but the use of any intoxicant to erode or eradicate the victim's ability to make meaningful choices about participation in sexual activity Weir, 2001 ; . This broader conceptualisation of drug assisted rape is of particular importance in light of the evidence of extensive misuse of alcohol in sexual offences. Research in the US indicates that whilst less than 4% of rape victims whose consciousness had been impaired had been given date rape drugs, alcohol was present in 67% of cases Slaughter, 2000 and ElSohly and Salamone, 1999 ; . This finding is supported by social research that discovered that 75% of men admitted to using alcohol to increase the likelihood that an initially reluctant woman would engage in intercourse Masher and Anderson, 1986 ; . This is not to say that every situation in which a woman who is intoxicated with alcohol engages in intercourse amounts to drug assisted rape, merely that it encompasses a broad continuum of conduct and that the boundaries between rape and consensual intercourse are more complex than the prototypical construction would suggest. Certainly, both the Drug Rape Trust and the Rape Crisis Federation view the misuse of alcohol as a widespread and singulair.
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Rohypnol causes drowsiness, confusion, impaired motor skills, dizziness, dis-inhibition, impaired judgement, and reduced levels of consciousness.
This may be why one of the street names for rohpnol is the forget-me pill and it has been reportedly used in sexual assaults and temazepam.
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Added - buy your own drinks, ensure bottles or cans received are unopened or sealed; don't even taste someone else's drink ; there was already been a report in singapore of girls drink been spiked by rohypn0l and terazosin.
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